Synthesis and Characterization of Organophilic Bentonite for Produced Water Treatment

Main Article Content

G. U. Ngobiri
I. P. Okoye
N. C. Ngobiri

Abstract

This study investigates the synthesis and characterization of organophilic bentonite, from natural organophobic bentonite from Ebenebe Anambra State, Nigeria. The clay was used after milling and drying at 110°C overnight. The natural bentonite was then converted to sodium bentonite via ion exchange process using sodium carbonate. The Sodium exchanged bentonite (SEB) was modified through incipient wetness impregnation and ion exchange technique with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DMDOA) to obtain organophilic bentonite. The mineralogical characteristic of the clays was determined before and after modification using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF). Different organic solvents, namely kerosene, diesel, gasoline, xylene, ethyl benzene and toluene, were used to investigate the organophilic nature as well as the adsorption capacity of the modified bentonite. The XRF result showed from the Si/Al ratio that modification did not affect the basic structure of the bentonite. The FTIR result showed bands which are attributable to asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration of CH2 group of the alkyl chains present in DMDOA. Another band was also assigned to the asymmetric angular deformation of the CH3 group of dimethyl ammonium quaternary group. The modified samples showed higher affinity as well as higher sorption capacity to organic solvents compared to SEB and the order of adsorption capacity for these organics are diesel > kerosene > gasoline and toluene > ethylbenzene > xylene. The results show that the organophilic bentonite clay has potential for the removal of organics in produced water.

Keywords:
Bentonite clay, organophilic, dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, adsorption.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ngobiri, G. U., Okoye, I. P., & Ngobiri, N. C. (2020). Synthesis and Characterization of Organophilic Bentonite for Produced Water Treatment. Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, 5(1), 21-30. Retrieved from http://journaljmsrr.com/index.php/JMSRR/article/view/30125
Section
Original Research Article

References

Grim RE. Clay mineralogy. Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, USA; 1968.

Worrall WE. Clays. Transatlantic Arts; New York; 1968.

Chamley H. Clay sedimentology. Springer-Verlag; New York; 1989.

Kozak M, Domka L. Adsorption of the quaternary ammonium salts on montmorillonite. Journal of Physical and Chemistry Solids. 2004;65:441-445.

Jaber M, Miéhé-Brendlé J, Delmotte L, Dred RL. Formation of organoclays by one step synthesis. Solid States Sciences. 2005;7:610-615.

Xi Y, Ding Z, He H, Frost RL. Structure of organoclays – An X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis study. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2004; 277:116-120.

Sanchez-Martin MJ, Rodriguez-Cruz MS, Andrades MS, Sanchez-Camazano M. Efficiency of different clay minerals modified with a cationic surfactant in the adsorption of pesticides: Influence of clay type and pesticide hydrophobicity. Applied Clay Science. 2006;31:216-228.

Bilgiç C. Investigation of the factors affecting organic cation adsorption on some silicate minerals. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2005;281:33- 38.

Kawatra SK, Ripke SJ. Developing and understanding the bentonite fiber bonding mechanism. Minerals Engineering. 2001; 14:647-659.

Shen YH. Preparations of organobentonite using nonionic surfactants. Chemosphere. 2001;44:989-995.

He H, Frost RL, Bostrom T, Yuan P, Duong L, Yang D, Xi Y, Kloprogge JT. Changes in the morphology of organoclays with HDTMA+ surfactant loading. Applied Clay Science. 2005;31:262-271.

Pereira KRO, Hanna RA, Vianna MMGR, Pinto CA, Rodrigues MGF, Valenzuela-Díaz FR. Brazilian organoclays as nanostructured sorbents of petroleum derived hydrocarbons. Materials Research. 2005;8:77-80.

Lee SY, Kim SJ. Expansion characteristics of organoclay as a precursor to nanocomposites. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2002;211:19-26.

Ehssan N, Yehia E. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions by local Egyptian bentonite. Journal of American Science. 2012;8:581–589.

Alther GR. How to remove emulsified oil from wastewater with organoclays. Water Engineering & Management. 2001;148: 27-29.

Yildiz N, Calimli A. Alteration of three Turkish bentonites by treatment with Na2CO3 and H2SO4. Turkish Journal of Chemistry. 2002;26:393-401.

Standard test methods for sorbent performance of absorbents-designation; F716-82; 2001. (Reapproved 2001)

Standard test methods for sorbent performance of absorbents-designation; F726-99; 2001. (Reapproved 2001)

Maria FD, Ticiane SV, Francisco RV, Nicole RD. Modification of a Brazilian smectite clay with different quaternary ammonium salts. Quím. Nova, 2010;33:(2). São Paulo

Araujo EM, Paz RA, Melo TJ, Leite AM, Barbosa R, Ito EN. Use of Brazilian clay in nylon 6 with different molecular weight nanocomposites. Materials Science Forum. 2010;660-661:777-783.

Regina OA, Okechukwu DO. Assessing influence of hydrochloric acid leaching on structural changes and bleaching performance of Nigerian clay from Udi. Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 2014; 50(1):349−358.

Zhou Q, He HP, Zhu JX, Shen W, Frost RL, Yuan P. Mechanism of p-nitrophenol adsorption from aqueous solution by HDTMA+ -pillared montmorillonite—implications for water purification. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008;154:1025–1032.

Yuan P, Annabi-Bergaya F, Tao Q, Fan M, Liu Z, Zhu J, He H, Chen T. A combined study by XRD, FTIR, TG and HRTEM on the structure of delaminated Fe- intercalated/pillared clay. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2008;324:142–149.

Akcay M. Characterization and adsorption properties of tetrabutylammonium montmorillonite (TBAM) clay: Thermodynamic and kinetic calculations. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006;296:16–21.

Hongping H, Frost RL, Jianxi Z. Infrared study of HDTMA+ intercalated montmorillonite. Journal of Spec¬trochimica Acta, Part A. 2004;60:2853–2859.

Frost R, Carmody O, Xi Y, Kokat S. Adsorption of hydrocarbons on organo- clays: Implications for oil spill remediation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2007;305:17-24.