The Study of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange in the Presence of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Suspension

Main Article Content

Md. Matiar Rahman
Tamanna Akhter Pinky
Dinesh Chandra Mondal
Minhazul Abedin
Md. Mahedi Hasan


Photodegradation of methyl orange spectrum in aqueous ZnO suspension by UV irradiation has shown time-dependent UV photodegradation. Methyl orange shows absorption peaks at 463 nm in the visible region. The rate of decolourization was recorded with respect to the change in the intensity of absorption peaks at 463 nm. The absorbance decreased with time and finally disappeared as the irradiation was scattered with time. It is seen that about 40% of dye was degraded after 30 minutes whereas about 60% of dye degraded after hours. The effect of photo-catalyst concentration on the photo-degradation rate of the methyl orange dye was investigated by employing different concentrations of ZnO from 0.2 to 2.0 g/100 mL with dye concentration 2 mg/100 mL at normal pH of methyl orange solution. The highest decrease in the concentration of methyl orange solution was observed for the ZnO of 1.4 g/mL during 60 minutes of irradiation. After optimizing the catalyst concentration of ZnO suspension (1.4g/100mL), the photocatalytic degradation methyl orange solution was carried out by varying the initial concentration of dye from 6mg/100mL to 10mg/100mL in order to assess the appropriate concentration of the dye required for maximum degradation. The percentage of degradation of methyl orange is scattered with an increase in dye concentration. In the case of 7mg/100mL of MO solution about 68% of degradation was found after 60 minutes. The highest degradation of methyl orange is 64.458 which were obtained at pH 7.

Methyl orange, ZnO, photo-degradation, dye.

Article Details

How to Cite
Rahman, M. M., Pinky, T. A., Mondal, D. C., Abedin, M., & Hasan, M. M. (2020). The Study of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange in the Presence of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Suspension. Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, 5(2), 1-14. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Balter M. Clothes Make the (Hu) Man. Science. 2009;325(5946):1329.
[PMID: 19745126]

Kvavadze E, Bar-Yosef O, Belfer-Cohen A, Boaretto E, Jakeli N, Matskevich Z, Meshveliani T. 30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers. Science. 2009;325(5946):1359.
DOI: 10.1126/science.1175404
[PMID: 19745144]

Hunger K. Industrial dyes. Chemistry, properties, applications. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2003.

Zollinger H. Color Chemistry. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Organic Dyes and Pigments, 3rd ed. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2003.

Simon Garfield. Mauve: How one man invented a color that changed the World. Faber and Faber; 2003.
[ISBN 0-393-02005-3]

Duarteand FJ, Hillman LW (Eds.), Dye Laser Principles (Academic, New York; 1990.

Kirk-Othmer. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 5th edition. Wiley-Interscience; 2004.

Bafana A, Devi SS, Chakrabarti T. Azo dyes: Past, present and the future. Environmental Reviews. 2011;19:350–370.

Zollinger H. Synthesis, Properties of Organic Dyes and Pigments. In: Color

Chemistry. New York, USA: VCH Publishers. 1987;92-102.

Carneiro PA, Nogueira, RFP, Zanoni, MVB. Homogeneous photodegradation of C.I. Reactive Blue 4 using a photo-Fenton process under artificial and solar irradiation. Dyes and Pigments. 2007;74 127-132.

Christie R. Colour Chemistry. Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2001.

Arun Prasad AS, Bhaskara Rao KV. Physico chemical characterization of textile effluent and screening for dye decolorizing bactéria. Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2010;5(2):80-86.

Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P. Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: A critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresource Technology. 2001; 77(12):247-255.

Ogugbue CJ, Sawidis T. Bioremediation and detoxification of synthetic wastewater containing triarylmethane dyes by aeromonashydrophila isolated from industrial effluent. Biotechnology Research International; 2011.
DOI: 10.4061/2011/967925

Perkins WS. A review of textile dyeing processes. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. 1991;23(8):23–27.

Couto SR. Dye removal by immobilised fungi. Biotechnology Advances 2009; 27(3) 227-235. O’Neill C, Hawkes FR, Hawkes DL, Lourenço ND, Pinheiro HM, Delée W. Colour in textile effluents – sources, measurement, discharge consents and simulation: A review. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 1999;74 (11):1009-1018.

Przystaś W, Zabłocka-Godlewska E, Grabińska-Sota E. Biological removal of azo and triphenylmethane dyes and toxicity of process by-products. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2012;223(4):1581-1592.

Sen S, Demirer GN. Anaerobic treatment of real textile wastewater with a fluidized bed reactor. Water Research. 2003;37(8): 1868-1878.

Ben Mansour H, Houas I, Montassar F, Ghedira K, Barillier D, Mosrati R, Chekir-Ghedira L. Alteration of in vitro and acute in vivo toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater after chemical and biological remediation. Environmental Science and Pollution research International; 2012.
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-0802-7

Ben Mansour H, Houas I, Montassar F, Ghedira K, Barillier D, Mosrati R, Chekir-Ghedira L. Alteration of in vitro and acute in vivo toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater after chemical and biological remediation. Environmental science and pollution research international; 2012.
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-0802-7

Talarposhti AM, Donnelly T, Anderson GK. Colour removal from a simulated dye wastewater using a two-phase anaerobic packed bed reactor. Water Research. 2001;35(2):425-432.

Ibrahim MB, Poonam N, Datel S, Roger M. Microbial decolorization of textile dye-containing effluents: A review, Bioresource Technology. 1996;58(3):217-227.

Wijetunga S, Li XF, Jian C. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2010;177(1-3): 792-798.

Vaidya AA, Datye KV. Environmental pollution during chemical processing of synthetic fibers. Colourage. 1982;14:3-10.

Rajaguru P, Fairbairn LJ, Ashby J, Willington MA, Turner S, Woolford LA, Chinnasamy N, Rafferty JA. Genotoxicity studies on the azo dye Direct Red 2 using the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus tests. Mutation Research. 1999;444(1):175-180.

Hubbe MA, Beck KR, O’Neal WG, Sharma YC. Cellulosic substrates for removal of pollutants from aqueous systems: A review. 2. Dyes. Dye biosorption: Review. Bio Resources. 2012;7(2):2592-2687.

Carliell CM, Barclay SJ, Shaw C, Wheatley AD, Buckley CA. The effect of salts used in textile dyeing on microbial decolourisation of a reactive azo dye. Environmental Technology. 1998;19(11):1133-1137.

Seesuriyachan P, Takenaka S, Kuntiya A, Klayraung S, Murakami S, Aoki K. Metabolism of azo dyes by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 and effects of various factors on decolorization. Water Research. 2007;41(5):985-992.

Ben Mansour H, Corroler D, Barillier D, Ghedira K, Chekir L, Mosrati R. Evaluation of genotoxicity and pro-oxidant effect of the azo dyes: Acids yellow 17, violet 7 and orange 52 and of their degradation products by Pseudomonas putida mt-2. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2007;45 (9):1670-1677.

Chung KT, Cerniglia CE. Mutagenicity of azo dyes: Structure-activity relationships. Mutation Research. 1992;277(3):201-220.

Pinheiro HM, Touraud E, Thomas O. Aromatic amines from azo dye reduction: status review with emphasis on direct UV spectrophotometric detection in textile industry wastewaters. Dyes and Pigments. 2004;61(2):121-139.

Umbuzeiro GA, Freeman H, Warren SH, Kummrow F, Claxton LD. Mutagenicity evaluation of the commercial product CI Disperse Blue 291 using different protocols of the Salmonella assay. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005;43(1):49-56.

Arlt VM, Glatt H, Muckel E, Pabel U, Sorg BL, Schmeiser HH, Phillips DH. Metabolic activation of the environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone by human acetyltransferases and sulfotransferase. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23 (11):1937-1945.

Hao OJ, Kim H, Chiang PC, 2000. Decolorization of wastewater. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 2000;30(4):449-505.

Firmino PIM, Silva MER, Cervantes FJ, Santos AB. Colour removal of dyes from synthetic and real textile wastewaters in one- and two-stage anaerobic systems. Bioresource Technology. 2010;101(20): 7773-7779.

Carneiro PA, Umbuzeiro GA, Oliveira DP, Zanoni MVB. Assessment of water contamination is caused by a mutagenic textile effluent/dyehouse effluent bearing disperse dyes. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2010;174(1-3):694-699.

Barani H, Montazer M. A review on applications of liposomes in textile processing. Journal of Liposome Research. 2008;18(3):249-262.