Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas including metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, electrical materials, composite materials, fibers, all engineering materials, nanostructured materials, nanocomposites, and biological and biomedical materials. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews en-US Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews Identification of Polyaromatic Compounds in Spent Oil Contaminated Soil <p>The indiscriminate disposal of spent motor oil in the soil has led to the contamination of both land and water. The present study analyzes the compounds in spent motor oil from a car and the extraction from the soil of two mechanical workshops located in Gwagwalada area council of FCT, Abuja Nigeria. The samples were cold extracted in dichloromethane. The chemical compositions of the extracts were analyzed using GC/MS. The results revealed that extracts from SDP mechanical workshop (SMW), Dagiri mechanical workshop (DMW) and spent oil from a car (SCO) had carbon compounds that ranged from C<sub>15</sub>- C<sub>35</sub>, C<sub>13</sub> – C<sub>34</sub> and C<sub>10</sub> – C<sub>20 </sub>respectively. About thirteen polycyclic compounds, eleven monocyclic compound, five oxygenated compounds and eight hydrocarbons were identified. The results from this study give information on the toxic nature of spent oil, hence, informing and educating the auto mechanic engineers on the need to stop indiscriminate disposal of spent oil on soil. It also avails the government of the urgent need to enact and enforce policies on collection, management and treatment of spent oil before disposal.</p> Nna Orji, Chinenye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-14 2020-01-14 1 11 Kinetic Study of Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Cowpea Seed Husk for Production of Glucose <p>Acid hydrolysis of Cowpea seed husk was carried out using sulphuric acid with the concentrations of 0.1 M and 0.5 M at a reaction time of 10 to 90 minutes and temperatures of 130ºC to 170ºC. The substrates were characterised using proximate analysis. The effects of process parameters that were studied on glucose yield were; time, temperature, substrate concentration, and acid concentration. The experimental data obtained for glucose yield were fitted into the Saeman’s model and Two –fraction models. The result obtained from the proximate analysis shows that cowpea seed husk has a cellulose content of 31.7%, hemicelluloses of 26.7% and lignin 6.1%. The maximum glucose yield of 27.1% was obtained at temperature of 150ºC, a reaction time of 50 minutes, 0.02 g/ml substrate concentration, and 0.5 M acid concentration. The two-fraction model gave a better fit of the experimental data over saeman’s model. From the study it is concluded that cowpea seed husk can be a good source for glucose production.</p> Madu Ebere Okechukwu Nwabanne Joseph Tagbo Onu Chijioke Elijah Ifeanyi Chinwuba Edwin Umeghalu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 1 10 The Characterization of Fly Ash during High Temperature Oxidation of Galvanized Steel <p>Fly Ash, a solid waste (particulate matter) generated from a steel smelting plant was analyzed and characterized. Physical and chemical investigations of the fly ash from a steel manufacturing company was conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Hot stage Microscopy (HSM) to determine it properties. The fly ash sample comprised mainly of Fe, Zn, Mg, Si and Na. Zinc and Iron, the most abundant elements in the fly ash were found to be in the oxides. The amorphous nature of the ash had some distinct compounds and minerals, which had Gordaite being formed as one of the major phases as a result of the high temperature oxidation of galvanized steel auto parts. The other phases formed were Si<sub>5</sub>O<sub>15</sub> and Zinc Ferrite. From the analysis, it was found out that Zinc Ferrites compounds were formed from the reaction of iron oxides and zinc oxide at high temperatures. Technologies can be developed for gainful utilization of the fly ash in the manufacture of new products.</p> Maame Adwoa Bentumah Animpong Robert Kwame Nkum William Owusu Oduro Elizabeth Von-Kiti Benjamin Adjei Tuffour Andy Quarshie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 1 8 Physico–mechanical Properties of Cement-bonded Particleboards Made from Date Palm Fibres (Phoenix dactylifera) and Obeche Sawdust (Triplochyton schleroxylon) <p>The Despite the array of old-grown date palm with reduced fruit yields in the northern part of Nigeria, the utilization of its biomass has not been fully explored by the wood-based industries in the country. This study was designed to assess the possibilities of using Date palm (<em>Phoenix dactylifera</em>) fibres and wood residues of <em>Triplochyton schleroxylon</em> for the production of cement-bonded particles. The Date palm straws were pounded in to fibres and mixed with Obeche sawdust in ratio 1:1 by weight. The mixture was dry-mixed thoroughly with cement at 1:2.0, 1:2.5, 1:3.0 and 1:3.5. To enhance the setting of the boards, Calcium chloride (CaCl<sub>2</sub>) was used as catalyst. The chemical catalyst was dissolved in known volume of water at 3% to the weight of cement, sprinkled on wood-cement composite and mixed into uniform matrix-free-lump for making the boards. The boards produced was formed on hydraulic jack press at a pressure of 1.2 KN/m<sup>2</sup> for 24 h. The boards were subjected to physical and mechanical evaluation. The results showed that the stability of the boards increased with increase in the quantity of the cement used. Beyond 1:3.0 wood-cement ratio, the difference was not significant. But, significant in terms of their MOR, MOE and compressive strength. Based on the results obtained from this study, it is evident that cement-bonded particle boards can be produced from the mixture of date palm fibre and wood residues of <em>Triplochyto scleroxylon</em> to meet ISO 8335 particularly at 1:3.0 and 1:3.5 wood-cement mixing ratio.</p> A. M. Dadile O. A. Sotannde J. S. Alao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 1 5 Production and Potential of Activated Carbon from Cassava Peels for Remediation of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients from Wastewater: A Review <p>Cassava peels have been recognized as an ecological burden for the society. Their main advantageous application is animal feeding. However, cassava peels, as many lignocellulosic biomass-rich materials, have stimulated new gateways for the production of renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbents for water treatment applications. This review compiles the work conducted by various researchers over the last few decades on the use of cassava peels to produce activated carbon for adsorption purposes. In this review, the removal of Active pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) by activated carbon (AC) form agricultural waste has been reviewed and compared with the accruing properties of Cassava peels. The different production processes that have been employed to develop and improve the activated carbon from cassava peels have also been presented to highlight and discuss the key advancements on the viability of a wider scale production of activated carbon from cassava peels. The factors affecting the removal of APIs using AC have been reviewed. The mechanisms of applying activated carbon from cassava peels to effectively adsorb both organic and inorganic content have been reviewed and possibilities of further improvement highlighted. The paper also discusses the key research gaps in the area of customizing the production of Activated carbon from cassava peels for abatement of APIs from wastewater.</p> R. Kayiwa P. W. Olupot M. Lubwama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-08 2020-02-08 1 24