Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas including metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, electrical materials, composite materials, fibers, all engineering materials, nanostructured materials, nanocomposites, and biological and biomedical materials. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews) (Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews) Sat, 23 Nov 2019 12:00:24 +0000 OJS 60 Analysis of Dynamic Failure of High-density Polyethylene (HDPE) as Engineering Materials <p>Advances in engineering reliability and variability have allowed for a vast investigation into the dynamic failure of engineering materials in recent times than previously possible. This report aims to investigate and review the basic model in dynamic failure of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE)&nbsp; engineering materials by fatigue, through the dynamic crack initiation and growth as in brittle materials, ductile materials and elastic-plastic solids as in layered materials and composites and adiabatic shear bending in ductile materials. Slow crack growth (SCG) under sustained loads (pressure and axial loads) is one of the limiting failure modes that affect the long term performance of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pressure material identified for use in replacement of existing steel material. This report also compares the resistance to the SCG exhibited by the parent and fusion HDPE materials in the Single Edge Notch Tension (SENT) specimen testing. Analysis of the crack growth resistance parameter through crack-mouth-opening-displacement (CMOD), and crack-opening-angle (COA) revealed a marked difference between the parent and fusion HDPE material.</p> Chukwutoo, C. Ihueze, Paschal, S. Ebisike ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 03 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of the Energy Band Gap of Silicon Using Quantum Simulation for Photovoltaic Applications <p>This research deals with the study of the band structure, and density of state of silicon, <sub>&nbsp;</sub>using the first-principles pseudopotential method, based on the density functional theory (DFT) and the plane-wave method as implemented into Quantum Espresso (this is an open source software for Research of the Electronic Structure, Simulations, and&nbsp; Optimizations of materials) package.&nbsp; The value of the band gap found ranges between -0.2 to +0.6 eV. From the DOS graph we can observe the peaks from – 3.0 eV to – 3.5eV, and 5.50eV to 7.5eV for Si Material.</p> M. A. Bilya, M. U. Sarki, A. A. Mundi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 06 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Biochar versus Iron Oxide-biochar Performance as Adsorbents for Lead and Methyl Orange from an Aqueous Solution <p>Water purification is slowly becoming a problem worldwide due to population growth. Lack of proper wastewater disposal from domestic and industrial sources has escalated water pollution in developing countries. Continuous pollution of water sources has made water purification for domestic supplies very expensive. Modern and cost-effective ways of water purification are urgently needed. One of the modern emerging technologies is adsorption using nano-materials. The aim of the study was to prepare an engineered iron oxide-biochar (Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC), a nano-composite using pyrolysis and microwave activation. The efficiency of the nano-composite was evaluated in the removal of the heavy metal lead (Pb) and the dye methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions. Infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the functional groups present in the synthesized biochars before and after adsorption. The adsorption properties of the synthesised Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC and biochar (BC) were determined by application in lead metal and methyl orange aqueous solutions on known concentrations. FAAS and UV/VIS Spectrophotometry were used for Lead and Methyl Orange concentrations measurements respectively. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC and BC to remove MO and Pb in aqueous solutions.&nbsp; A dose of 50 mg Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC had the highest percentage MO removal of 89.81% at pH 2 while 50 mg of BC had a highest of 11.55% at pH 12. A dosage of 100 mg of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC had 100% MO removal and 250 mg BC achieved a maximum of 30.61% removal in 30 minutes. Maximum MO removal concentrations were 70 mg/L and 55 mg/L respectively for Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC and BC adsorbents. Both Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC and BC had Pb<sup>2+ </sup>removal of 97% in 30 minutes. A dose of 65 mg for both Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC and BC adsorbents had 100% removal of Pb<sup>2+</sup>. The adsorption studies of both MO dye and Pb<sup>2+</sup> on Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC nano-composite fit the Langmuir isotherm (R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.999) and Temkin isotherm (R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.919). The Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC nano-composite adsorbs Pb and MO dye better than biochar. The Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC nano-composite could be a good adsorbent for other cations and anions. More work need to be done in order to investigate the adsorption potential of other cations and anions using Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-BC nano-composite.</p> Tobias T. Shumba, Masimba Tapera, Janety Mumbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000