Production and Potential of Activated Carbon from Cassava Peels for Remediation of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients from Wastewater: A Review

Main Article Content

R. Kayiwa
P. W. Olupot
M. Lubwama


Cassava peels have been recognized as an ecological burden for the society. Their main advantageous application is animal feeding. However, cassava peels, as many lignocellulosic biomass-rich materials, have stimulated new gateways for the production of renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbents for water treatment applications. This review compiles the work conducted by various researchers over the last few decades on the use of cassava peels to produce activated carbon for adsorption purposes. In this review, the removal of Active pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) by activated carbon (AC) form agricultural waste has been reviewed and compared with the accruing properties of Cassava peels. The different production processes that have been employed to develop and improve the activated carbon from cassava peels have also been presented to highlight and discuss the key advancements on the viability of a wider scale production of activated carbon from cassava peels. The factors affecting the removal of APIs using AC have been reviewed. The mechanisms of applying activated carbon from cassava peels to effectively adsorb both organic and inorganic content have been reviewed and possibilities of further improvement highlighted. The paper also discusses the key research gaps in the area of customizing the production of Activated carbon from cassava peels for abatement of APIs from wastewater.

Cassava peel, activated carbon, active pharmaceutical ingredients.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kayiwa, R., Olupot, P. W., & Lubwama, M. (2020). Production and Potential of Activated Carbon from Cassava Peels for Remediation of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients from Wastewater: A Review. Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, 4(4), 1-24. Retrieved from
Review Article


Aswal RS, et al. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water. J. Xenobiotics. 2016;6(1):1–7.

WHO. World Health Organization (WHO). Pharmaceuticals in drinking water: Public health and environment water, sanitation, hygiene and health. Geneva, WHO/HSE/WSH/11.05; 2011.

Brodin T, Fick J, Jonsson M, Klaminder J, Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations. Science. 2013;339(6121):814-5.

Fram MS, Belitz K. Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California. Sci. Total Environ. 2011;409(18):3409–3417.

Yang Y, Ok YS, Kim KH, Kwon EE, Tsang YF. Occurrences and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water and water/sewage treatment plants: A review. Sci. Total Environ. 2017;596–597:303–320.

Coimbra RN, Calisto V, Ferreira CIA, Esteves VI, Otero M, Removal of pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by adsorption onto pyrolyzed pulp mill sludge. Arab. J. Chem; 2015.

Zuccato E, et al. Pharmaceuticals in the environment in Italy: Causes, occurrence, effects and control. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2006;13(1):15–21.

Prosser R, Sibley P. Response to the comments on “Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant tissue due to biosolids and manure amendments, and wastewater irrigation. Environment International. 2015;84.

Nantaba F, Wasswa J, Kylin H, Palm W, Bouwman H, Kümmerer K. Chemosphere occurrence, distribution and ecotoxicological risk assessment of selected pharmaceutical compounds in water from Lake Victoria, Uganda. Chemosphere. 2020;239:124642.

Silva CP, Jaria G, Otero M, Esteves VI, Calisto V, Waste-based alternative adsorbents for the remediation of pharmaceutical contaminated waters: Has a step forward already been taken? Bioresour. Technol. 2018;250;888–901.

Herrmann M, Olsson O, Fiehn R, Herrel M, Kümmerer K. The significance of different health institutions and their respective contributions of active pharmaceutical ingredients to wastewater. Environ. Int. 2015;85:61-76.

De Wilt A, et al. Enhanced pharmaceutical removal from water in a three step bio-ozone-bio process. Water Res. 2018;138:97-105.

Anjum M, Miandad R, Waqas M, Gehany F, Barakat MA. Remediation of wastewater using various nano-materials. Arab. J. Chem; 2016.

Alves TC, Cabrera-Codony A, Barceló D, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Pinheiro A, Gonzalez-Olmos R. Influencing factors on the removal of pharmaceuticals from water with micro-grain activated carbon. Water Res. 2018;144:402-412.

De Gisi S, Lofrano G, Grassi M, Notarnicola M, Characteristics and adsorption capacities of low-cost sorbents for wastewater treatment: A review. Sustain. Mater. Technol. 2016;9:10-40.

Adeleye AS, Conway JR, Garner K, Huang Y, Su Y, Keller AA. Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: Costs, benefits, and applicability. Chem. Eng. J. 2016;286:640-662.

Roy S, Sengupta S, Manna S, Rahman MA, Das P. Rice husk derived silica and its application for treatment of fluoride containing wastewater: Batch study and modeling using artificial neural network analysis. Desalin. Water Treat. 2018;105:73-82.

Bhatnagar A, Sillanpää M, Witek-Krowiak A. Agricultural waste peels as versatile biomass for water purification - A review. Chem. Eng. J. 2015;270:244-271.

Álvarez-Torrellas S, Rodríguez A, Ovejero G, García J. Comparative adsorption performance of ibuprofen and tetracycline from aqueous solution by carbonaceous materials. Chem. Eng. J. 2016;283:936-947.

Hesas RH, Arami-Niya A, Wan Daud WMA, Sahu JN. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from apple waste by microwave-assisted phosphoric acid activation: Application in methylene blue adsorption. BioResources. 2013;8(2):2950-2966.

Menya E, Olupot PW, Storz H, Lubwama M, Kiros Y. Production and performance of activated carbon from rice husks for removal of natural organic matter from water: A review. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 2017;129:271-296.

Salahudeen N, Ajinomoh C, Omaga S, Akpaka C. Production of activated carbon from cassava. J. Appl. Phytotechnology Environ. Sanit. 2014;3(2):75-80.

Menya E, Olupot PW, Storz H, Lubwama M, Kiros Y. Characterization and alkaline pretreatment of rice husk varieties in Uganda for potential utilization as precursors in the production of activated carbon and other value-added products. Waste Manag. 2018;81:104-116.

Bae W, Kim J, Chung J. Production of granular activated carbon from food-processing wastes (walnut shells and jujube seeds) and its adsorptive properties. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 2014;64(8):879-886.

Loloie Z, Mozaffarian M, Soleimani M, Asassian N. Carbonization and CO2 activation of scrap tires: Optimization of specific surface area by the Taguchi method. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2017;34(2):366–375.

Kurniawan A, et al. Evaluation of cassava peel waste as lowcost biosorbent for Ni-sorption: Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism. Chem. Eng. J. 2017;172(1)158-166.

Sulaiman NS, Hashim R, Amini MHM, Danish M, Sulaiman O. Optimization of activated carbon preparation from cassava stem using response surface methodology on surface area and yield. J. Clean. Prod. 2018;198:1422-1430.

Grace MA, Clifford E, Healy MG. The potential for the use of waste products from a variety of sectors in water treatment processes. J. Clean. Prod. 2016;137:788-802.

Arie AA, Kristianto H, Demir E, Cakan RD. Activated porous carbons derived from the Indonesian snake fruit peel as anode materials for sodium ion batteries. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2018;217:254-261.

Elkady MF. Synthesis and characterization of nano-activated carbon from El Maghara coal, Sinai, Egypt to be utilized for wastewater purification. Am. J. Appl. Chem. 2015;3(3):1.

Alslaibi T, Abustan I, Ahmad M, Foul AA. Review: Comparison of agricultural by-products activated carbon production methods using surface area response. CJASR. 2012;528-538.

Zunipa R, Halder GN. Performance of physico-chemically activated carbon in a single chamber pressure swing refrigeration system. Energy Procedia. 2017;109:393-400.

El-Shafey ESI, Al-Lawati H, Al-Sumri AS. Ciprofloxacin adsorption from aqueous solution onto chemically prepared carbon from date palm leaflets. J. Environ. Sci. (China). 2012;24(9):1579-1586.

Reza RA, Ahmaruzzaman M, Sil AK, Gupta VK. Comparative adsorption behavior of ibuprofen and clofibric acid onto microwave assisted activated bamboo waste. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2014;53(22):9331-9339.

Zhou A, Zhang Y, Li R, Su X, Zhang L. Adsorptive removal of sulfa antibiotics from water using spent mushroom substrate, an agricultural waste. Desalin. Water Treat. 2016;57(1):388-397.

FAO. Save and grow: Cassava. A guide to sustainable production intensification, Produire plus avec moins. Ahorrar Para Crecer; 2013.

Kalathil S, Lee J, Cho MH. Granular activated carbon based microbial fuel cell for simultaneous decolorization of real dye wastewater and electricity generation. N. Biotechnol. 2011;29(1):32-37.

Beakou BH, El Hassani K, Houssaini MA, Belbahloul M, Oukani E, Anouar A. Novel activated carbon from Manihot esculenta Crantz for removal of Methylene blue. Sustain. Environ. Res. 2017;27(5):215-222.

Adowei P, Horsfall Jnr M, Spiff AI. Adsorption of Methyl Red from aqueous solution by activated carbon produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz) peel waste. Innov. Sci. Eng. 2012;2:24-33.

Suharso S, Buhani B. Biosorption of Pb (II), Cu (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solution using cassava peel waste biomass. AJC. 2011;3:1112–1116.

Cleuvers M. Aquatic ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals including the assessment of combination effects. Toxicol. Lett. 2003;142(3):185-194.

Altmann J, Rehfeld D, Träder K, Sperlich A, Jekel M. Combination of granular activated carbon adsorption and deep-bed filtration as a single advanced wastewater treatment step for organic micropollutant and phosphorus removal. Water Res. 2016;92:131-139.

Paredes L, Alfonsin C, Allegue T, Omil F, Carballa M. Integrating granular activated carbon in the post-treatment of membrane and settler effluents to improve organic micropollutants removal. Chem. Eng. J. 2018;345:79–86.

Aschermann G, Zietzschmann F, Jekel M. Influence of dissolved organic matter and activated carbon pore characteristics on organic micropollutant desorption. Water Res. 2018;133:123-131.

Falås P, Wick A, Castronovo S, Habermacher J, Ternes TA, Joss A. Tracing the limits of organic micropollutant removal in biological wastewater treatment. Water Res. 2016;95:240-249.

Ceballos H, et al. Variation in crude protein content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots. J. Food Compos. Anal. 2006;19(6-7):589–593.

FAO. Food Outlook Biannual Report on Global Food Markets; 2018.

Adekunle A, Orsat V, Raghavan V. Lignocellulosic bioethanol: A review and design conceptualization study of production from cassava peels. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016;64:518-530.

Ubalua AO. Cassava wastes: Treatment options and value addition alternatives. African J. Biotechnol. 2007;6(18):2065-2073.

Okudoh V, Trois C, Workneh T, Schmidt S. The potential of cassava biomass and applicable technologies for sustainable biogas production in South Africa: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2014;39:1035-1052.

Nuwamanya E, Chiwona-Karltun L, Kawuki RS, Baguma Y. Bio-ethanol production from non-food parts of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Ambio. 2012;41(3):262-270.

Rajeshwarisivaraj, Sivakumar S, Senthilkumar P, Subburam V. Carbon from cassava peel, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent in the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solution. Bioresour. Technol. 2001;80(3):233-235.

Jain CK, Malik DS, Yadav AK. Applicability of plant based biosorbents in the removal of heavy metals: A review. Environ. Process. 2016;3(2):495-523.

Nwoko CI, Enyinnaya OC, Okolie JI, Nkwoada A. The proximate analysis and biochemical composition of the waste peels of three cassava cultivars. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Appl. Sci. 2016;2(11):2395-3470.

Ilaboya I, Oti E, Ekoh G, Umukoro L. Performance of activated carbon from cassava peels for the treatment of effluent wastewater. Iran. J. Energy Environ. 2013;4(4):361-375.

Sudaryanto Y, Hartono SB, Irawaty W, Hindarso H, Ismadji S. High surface area activated carbon prepared from cassava peel by chemical activation. Bioresour. Technol. 2006;97(5):734-739.

Kouteu Nanssou PA, Jiokap Nono Y, Kapseu C. Pretreatment of cassava stems and peelings by thermohydrolysis to enhance hydrolysis yield of cellulose in bioethanol production process. Renew. Energy. 2016;97:252-265.

Achak M, Hafidi A, Ouazzani N, Sayadi S, Mandi L. Low cost biosorbent ‘banana peel’ for the removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater: Kinetic and equilibrium studies. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;166(1):117-125.

Olupot PW, Candia A, Menya E, Walozi R. Characterization of rice husk varieties in Uganda for biofuels and their techno-economic feasibility in gasification. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 2016;107:63-72.

Pooja NS, Padmaja G. Enhancing the enzymatic saccharification of agricultural and processing residues of cassava through pretreatment techniques. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2015;6(3):303-315.

Dod R, Banerjee G, Saini S. Adsorption of methylene blue using green pea peels (Pisum sativum): A cost-effective option for dye-based wastewater treatment. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 2012;17(4): 862–874.

Arena N, Lee J, Clift R. Life cycle assessment of activated carbon production from coconut shells. J. Clean. Prod. 2016;125:68–77.

Abdel-Ghani NT, El-Chaghaby GA, Elgammal MH, Rawash ESA. Optimizing the preparation conditions of activated carbons from olive cake using KOH activation. Xinxing Tan Cailiao/New Carbon Mater. 2016;31(5):492–500.

Kosasih AN, Febrianto J, Sunarso J, Ju YH, Indraswati N, Ismadji S. Sequestering of Cu(II) from aqueous solution using cassava peel (Manihot esculenta). J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;180(1-3):366-374.

Sajjadi B, Chen WY, Egiebor NO. A comprehensive review on physical activation of biochar for energy and environmental applications. Rev. Chem. Eng; 2018.

Lam SS, Wan Mahari WA, Jusoh A, Chong CT, Lee CL, Chase HA. Pyrolysis using microwave absorbents as reaction bed: An improved approach to transform used frying oil into biofuel product with desirable properties. J. Clean. Prod. 2017;147:263-272.

Xia C, Shi SQ. Self-activation for activated carbon from biomass: Theory and parameters. Green Chem. 2016;18(7): 2063–2071.

Nowrouzi M, Younesi H, Bahramifar N. High efficient carbon dioxide capture onto as-synthesized activated carbon by chemical activation of Persian Ironwood biomass and the economic pre-feasibility study for scale-up. J. Clean. Prod. 2017;168:499-509.

Zietzschmann F, et al. Estimating organic micro-pollutant removal potential of activated carbons using UV absorption and carbon characteristics. Water Res. 2014;56:48-55.

Benstoem, Pinnekamp J. Characteristic numbers of granular activated carbon for the elimination of micropollutants from effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Sci. Technol. 2017;76(2):279–285.

Mailler R, et al. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale. Sci. Total Environ. 2016;542:983-996.

Anumol T, Sgroi M, Park M, Roccaro P, Snyder SA. Predicting trace organic compound breakthrough in granular activated carbon using fluorescence and UV absorbance as surrogates. Water Res. 2015;76:76-87.

Moreno-Piraján JC, Giraldo L. Study of activated carbons by pyrolysis of cassava peel in the presence of chloride zinc. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 2010;87(2):288-290.

Yakout SM, Sharaf El-Deen G. Characterization of activated carbon prepared by phosphoric acid activation of olive stones. Arab. J. Chem. 2016;9:S1155-S1162.

Geçgel Ü, Üner O, Gökara G, Bayrak Y. Adsorption of cationic dyes on activated carbon obtained from waste Elaeagnus stone. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 2016;34(9-10):512-525.

Rhaman MT, Haque MA, Rouf MA, Siddique MAB, Islam MS. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon & amorphous silica from rice husk. 2015;50(4):263-270.

Liew RK, et al. Innovative production of highly porous carbon for industrial effluent remediation via microwave vacuum pyrolysis plus sodium-potassium hydroxide mixture activation. J. Clean. Prod. 2019;208:1436-1445.

Sun Y, Webley PA. Preparation of activated carbons from corncob with large specific surface area by a variety of chemical activators and their application in gas storage. Chem. Eng. J. 2010;162(3)883-892.

Liou TH. Development of mesoporous structure and high adsorption capacity of biomass-based activated carbon by phosphoric acid and zinc chloride activation. Chem. Eng. J. 2010;158(2):129-142.

Hu Z, Srinivasan MP. Mesoporous high-surface-area activated carbon. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2001;43(3):267-275.

Kumar A, Jena HM. Preparation and characterization of high surface area activated carbon from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by chemical activation with H3PO4. Results Phys. 2016;6:651-658.

Sych NV, et al. Porous structure and surface chemistry of phosphoric acid activated carbon from corncob. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2012;261:75-82.

Satayeva AR, et al. Investigation of rice husk derived activated carbon for removal of nitrate contamination from water. Sci. Total Environ. 2018;630:1237-1245.

Ariyadejwanich P, Tanthapanichakoon W, Nakagawa K, Mukai SR, Tamon H. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous activated carbons from waste tyre. Carbon N. Y. 2003;41(2003):157-164.

Nasrullah A, et al. Mangosteen peel waste as a sustainable precursor for high surface area mesoporous activated carbon: Characterization and application for methylene blue removal. J. Clean. Prod. 2019;211:1190-1200.

Quynh BTP, Nguyen TD, Bach LG, Ho VTT, Van Thuan T. Response surface methodology approach for optimization of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ adsorption using KOH-activated carbon from banana peel. Surfaces and Interfaces. 2016;6:209–217.

Nguyen TD, Moon JI, Song JH, Kim TN. Synthesis of activated carbon from rice husk using microwave heating induced KOH activation. Korean J. Mater. Res. 2012;22(6):321–327.

Pandiarajan A, Kamaraj R, Vasudevan S, Vasudevan S. OPAC (orange peel activated carbon) derived from waste orange peel for the adsorption of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides from water: Adsorption isotherm, kinetic modelling and thermodynamic studies. Bioresour. Technol. 2018;261:329–341.

Teixeira S, Delerue-Matos C, Santos L. Application of experimental design methodology to optimize antibiotics removal by walnut shell based activated carbon. Sci. Total Environ. 2019;646:168–176.

Selvamani V, Ravikumar R, Suryanarayanan V, Velayutham D, Gopukumar S. Garlic peel derived high capacity hierarchical N-doped porous carbon anode for sodium/lithium ion cell. Electrochim. Acta. 2016;190:337–345.

Akmil-Başar C, Önal Y, Kiliçer T, Eren D. Adsorptions of high concentration malachite green by two activated carbons having different porous structures. J. Hazard. Mater. 2005;127(1–3):73–80.

El-Sayed GO, Yehia MM, Asaad AA. Assessment of activated carbon prepared from corncob by chemical activation with phosphoric acid. Water Resour. Ind. 2014;7–8:66–75.

Oh JY, et al. Adsorption characteristics of benzene on resin-based activated carbon under humid conditions. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2018;71:242–249.

Palanisamy S, Shyma AP, Srinivasan S, Venkatachalam R. Novel modified nano-activated carbon and its influence on the metal–O2 battery system. J. Energy Storage. 2019;22:283–294.

Yek PNY, et al. Microwave steam activation, an innovative pyrolysis approach to convert waste palm shell into highly microporous activated carbon. J. Environ. Manage. 2019;236:245–253.

Li B, Ma C. Study on the mechanism of SO2 removal by activated carbon. Energy Procedia. 2018;153:471–477.

Spaltro A, et al. Adsorption and removal of phenoxy acetic herbicides from water by using commercial activated carbons: Experimental and computational studies. J. Contam. Hydrol. 2018;218:84–93.

Portinho R, Zanella O, Féris LA. Grape stalk application for caffeine removal through adsorption. J. Environ. Manage. 2017;202:178–187.

González-García P. Activated carbon from lignocellulosics precursors: A review of the synthesis methods, characterization techniques and applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018;82:1393–1414.

Pan L, Takagi Y, Matsui Y, Matsushita T, Shirasaki N. Micro-milling of spent granular activated carbon for its possible reuse as an adsorbent: Remaining capacity and characteristics. Water Res. 2017;114:50–58.

Afshin S, Mokhtari SA, Vosoughi M, Sadeghi H, Rashtbari Y. Data of adsorption of basic blue 41 dye from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from filamentous algae. Data Br. 2018;21:1008–1013.

Park KY, Yu YJ, Yun SJ, Kweon JH. Natural organic matter removal from algal-rich water and disinfection by-products formation potential reduction by powdered activated carbon adsorption. J. Environ. Manage. 2019;235:310–318.

Xiao Y, Yaohari H, De Araujo C, Sze CC, Stuckey DC. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with/without powdered activated carbon (PAC). Chem. Eng. J. 2017;321:335–345.

Ibeh PO, García-Mateos FJ, Rosas JM, Rodríguez-Mirasol J, Cordero T. Activated carbon monoliths from lignocellulosic biomass waste for electrochemical applications. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 2019;97:480–488.

Partlan E, et al. Effect of bead milling on chemical and physical characteristics of activated carbons pulverized to superfine sizes. Water Res. 2016;89:161–170.

Takaesu H, Matsui Y, Nishimura Y, Matsushita T, Shirasaki N. Micro-milling super-fine powdered activated carbon decreases adsorption capacity by introducing oxygen/hydrogen-containing functional groups on carbon surface from water. Water Res. 2019;155:66–75.

Piai L, Dykstra JE, Adishakti MG, Blokland M, Langenhoff AAM, van der Wal A. Diffusion of hydrophilic organic micropollutants in granular activated carbon with different pore sizes. Water Res. 2019;162:518–527.

Labus K, Gryglewicz S, Machnikowski J. Granular KOH-activated carbons from coal-based cokes and their CO2 adsorption capacity. Fuel. 2014;118:9–15.

Cherbański R. Regeneration of granular activated carbon loaded with toluene – Comparison of microwave and conductive heating at the same active powers. Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif. 2018;123:148–157.

Kim SH, Shon HK, Ngo HH. Adsorption characteristics of antibiotics trimethoprim on powdered and granular activated carbon. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2010;16(3):344–349.

Selvaraju G, Bakar NKA. Production of a new industrially viable green-activated carbon from Artocarpus integer fruit processing waste and evaluation of its chemical, morphological and adsorption properties. J. Clean. Prod. 2017;141:989–999.

Zhang Y, Song X, Xu Y, Shen H, Kong X, Xu H. Utilization of wheat bran for producing activated carbon with high specific surface area via NaOH activation using industrial furnace. J. Clean. Prod. 2019;210:366–375.

Song X, Zhang Y, Chang C. Novel method for preparing activated carbons with high specific surface area from rice husk. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2012;51(46):15075–15081.

Jeswani HK, Gujba H, Brown NW, Roberts EPL, Azapagic A. Removal of organic compounds from water: Life cycle environmental impacts and economic costs of the Arvia process compared to granulated activated carbon. J. Clean. Prod. 2015;89:203–213.

Alhashimi HA, Aktas CB. Life cycle environmental and economic performance of biochar compared with activated carbon: A meta-analysis. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2017;118:13–26.

Zhu D, Pignatello JJ. Characterization of aromatic compound sorptive interactions with black carbon (charcoal) assisted by graphite as a model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005;39(7):2033–2041.

Sekulic MT, Boskovic N, Slavkovic A, Garunovic J, Kolakovic S, Pap S. Surface functionalised adsorbent for emerging pharmaceutical removal: Adsorption performance and mechanisms. Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 2019;125:50–63.

Margot J, et al. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater: Ozone or powdered activated carbon? Sci. Total Environ. 2013;461–462:480–498.

Tran HN, Wen YC, Wang YF, You SJ. Highly efficient removal of hazardous aromatic pollutants by micro-nano spherical carbons synthesized from different chemical activation methods: A comparison study. Environ. Technol. (United Kingdom). 2018;1–16.

Jaria G, et al. Production of highly efficient activated carbons from industrial wastes for the removal of pharmaceuticals from water-A full factorial design. J. Hazard. Mater. 2017;1.

Liu P, Liu WJ, Jiang H, Chen JJ, Li WW, Yu HQ. Modification of bio-char derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass and its application in removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution. Bioresour. Technol. 2012;121:235–240.

Marques SCR, Mestre AS, Machuqueiro M, Gotvajn AŽ, Marinšek M, Carvalho AP. Apple tree branches derived activated carbons for the removal of β-blocker atenolol. Chem. Eng. J. 2018;345:669–678.

To MH, Hadi P, Hui CW, Lin CSK, McKay G. Mechanistic study of atenolol, acebutolol and carbamazepine adsorption on waste biomass derived activated carbon. J. Mol. Liq. 2017;241:386–398.

Ahsan MA, et al. Biosorption of bisphenol A and sulfamethoxazole from water using sulfonated coffee waste: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2018;6(5):6602–6611.

Kyzas GZ, Deliyanni EA. Modified activated carbons from potato peels as green environmental-friendly adsorbents for the treatment of pharmaceutical effluents. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 2014;97:135–144.

Mestre AS, et al. Activated carbons prepared from industrial pre-treated cork: Sustainable adsorbents for pharmaceutical compounds removal. Chem. Eng. J. 2014;253(106637):408–417.

Rajapaksha AU, et al. Pyrolysis condition affected sulfamethazine sorption by tea waste biochars. Bioresour. Technol. 2014;166:303–308.

Saucier C, et al. Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents. J. Hazard. Mater. 2015;289:18–27.

Mailler R, et al. Study of a large scale powdered activated carbon pilot: Removals of a wide range of emerging and priority micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Water Res.; 2014.

Delgado LF, Charles P, Glucina K, Morlay C. The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutically activated compounds and cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water preparation using activated carbon-A review. Sci. Total Environ. 2012;435–436:509–525.

Kovalova L, et al. Elimination of micropollutants during post-treatment of hospital wastewater with powdered activated carbon, ozone, and UV. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013;47(14):7899–7908.

Guedidi H, Reinert L, Soneda Y, Bellakhal N, Duclaux L. Adsorption of ibuprofen from aqueous solution on chemically surface-modified activated carbon cloths. Arab. J. Chem. 2017;10:S3584–S3594.

Zhang CL, Qiao GL, Zhao F, Wang Y. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin adsorption onto modified coal fly ash from aqueous solution. J. Mol. Liq. 2011;163(1):53–56.

Spessato L, et al. KOH-super activated carbon from biomass waste: Insights into the paracetamol adsorption mechanism and thermal regeneration cycles. J. Hazard. Mater. 2019;371:499–505.

Petrie B, Barden R, Kasprzyk-Hordern B. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: Current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. Water Res. 2014;72:3–27.

Schäfer AI, Akanyeti I, Semião AJC. Micropollutant sorption to membrane polymers: A review of mechanisms for estrogens. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2011;164(1–2):100–117.

Sbardella L, Comas J, Fenu A, Rodriguez-Roda I, Weemaes M. Advanced biological activated carbon filter for removing pharmaceutically active compounds from treated wastewater. Sci. Total Environ. 2018;636:519–529.

Lee CO, Howe KJ, Thomson BM. Ozone and biofiltration as an alternative to reverse osmosis for removing PPCPs and micropollutants from treated wastewater. Water Res. 2012;46(4):1005–1014.

Verlicchi P, Zambello E. How efficient are constructed wetlands in removing pharmaceuticals from untreated and treated urban wastewaters? A review. Sci. Total Environ. 2014;470–471:1281–1306.

Parvathi C, Shoba US, Prakash C, Sivamani S. Manihot esculenta peel powder: Effective adsorbent for removal of various textile dyes from aqueous solutions. J. Test. Eval. 2018;46(6):20170160.

Delgado N, Capparelli A, Navarro A, Marino D. Pharmaceutical emerging pollutants removal from water using powdered activated carbon: Study of kinetics and adsorption equilibrium. J. Environ. Manage. 2019;236:301–308.

Hatt JW, Germain E, Judd SJ. Granular activated carbon for removal of organic matter and turbidity from secondary wastewater. Water Sci. Technol. 2013;67(4):846–853.

Benstoem F, Mousel D, Pinnekamp J. Abrasion of granular activated carbon used for elimination of micropollutans in municipal waste water treatment. In 9th Micropol & Ecohazard. 2015;5–6.

Benstoem F, et al. Performance of granular activated carbon to remove micropollutants from municipal wastewater—A meta-analysis of pilot- and large-scale studies. Chemosphere. 2017;185:105–118.

Säfström C. Reduction of active pharmaceutical ingredients and oestrogens in wastewater–using powdered activated carbon. Chemeng. Lth. Se; 2008.

Luo Y, et al. Science of the total environment a review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment. Sci. Total Environ. 2014;473–474:619–641.