Potential Use of Modified Derivative of Chitin and Chitosan on Precious Metal Recovery: A Review

Main Article Content

Rega Permana
. Junianto


Recovery of metals serves as an attractive approach to gain precious and rarely available metals on earth which are important in industries. For years many methods have been practiced for this recovery such as adsorption, liquid-liquid extraction, or membrane processes. Adsorption provides a beneficial offer compared to others due to its cheap, easy maintenance, and high efficiency. Lately, the focus of adsorption has shifted to the use of bio-sorbent derived from a natural resource, including chitin and chitosan. Chitin and chitosan, which mainly produced from crab and shrimp shell, have been explored for any kind of precious metal recoveries such as platinum, palladium, gold, silver, and others. Various modifications to its structure also have been employed in order to gain more efficient performance. Here we are going to discuss chitin and chitosan along with their engineered and modified form recent advances on precious metal recovery as well as their potential of future research opportunities.

Adsorbent, chitin, chitosan, precious metals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Permana, R., & Junianto, . (2021). Potential Use of Modified Derivative of Chitin and Chitosan on Precious Metal Recovery: A Review. Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, 7(2), 14-24. Retrieved from https://journaljmsrr.com/index.php/JMSRR/article/view/30175
Review Article


Jafari AM, Gharibi S, Farjadmand F, Sadighara P. Extraction of shrimp waste pigments by enzymatic and alkaline treatment: evaluation by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag. 2012;14:411-413.

Ringø E, Zhou Z, Olsen RE, Song SK. Use of chitin and krill in aquaculture–the effect on gut microbiota and the immune system: a review. Aquacult Nutr. 2012;18:117-131.

Yong SK, Shrivastava M, Srivastava P, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N. Environmental applications of chitosan and its derivatives, In Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2015;233: 1-43. Springer, Cham.

Shahidi F, Arachchi JKV, Jeon YJ. Food applications of chitin and chitosans. Trends Food Sci Technol. 1999;10:37-51.

Fabritius H, Sachs C, Raabe D, Nikolov S, Friák M, Neugebauer J. Chitin in the exoskeletons of arthropoda: From ancient design to novel materials science. In Chitin .Springer, Dordrecht. 2011;35-60.

Kamble SP, Jagtap S, Labhsetwar NK, Thakare D, Godfrey S, Devotta S, Rayalu SS. Defluoridation of drinking water using chitin, chitosan and lanthanum-modified chitosan. Chem Eng J. 2007;129:173-180.

Qu T, Verma D, Alucozai M, Tomar V. Influence of interfacial interactions on deformation mechanism and interface viscosity in α-chitin–calcite interfaces. Acta Biomater. 2015;25:325-338.

You J, Li M, Ding B, Wu X, Li C. Crab Chitin‐Based 2D Soft nanomaterials for fully biobased electric devices. Adv Mater. 2017;29:1606895.

Anastopoulos I, Bhatnagar A, Bikiaris DN, Kyzas GZ. Chitin adsorbents for toxic metals: a review. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: 114.

Jayakumar R, Chennazhi KP, Srinivasan S, Nair SV, Furuike T, Tamura H. Chitin scaffolds in tissue engineering. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12:1876-1887.

Hirano S. Chitin biotechnology applications. In Biotechnology Annual Review. Elsevier. 1996;2:237-258.

Ding B, Huang S, Pang K, Duan Y, Zhang J. Nitrogen-enriched carbon nanofiber aerogels derived from marine chitin for energy storage and environmental remediation. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2018;6:177-185.

Mi FL, Shyu SS, Lin YM, Wu YB, Peng CK, Tsai YH. Chitin/PLGA blend microspheres as a biodegradable drug delivery system: A new delivery system for protein. Biomaterials. 2003;24:5023-5036.

Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Kumar PS, Nair SV, Tamura H. Biomaterials based on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:322-337.

Azofeifa DE, Arguedas HJ, Vargas WE. Optical properties of chitin and chitosan biopolymers with application to structural color analysis. Opt Mater. 2012;35:175-183.

Wu KH, Lo HM, Wang JC, Yu SY, Yan BD. Electrochemical detection of heavy metal pollutant using crosslinked chitosan/carbon nanotubes thin film electrodes. Mater Express. 2017;7(1):15-24.

Zhijiang C, Ping X, Cong Z, Tingting Z, Jie G, Kongyin Z. Preparation and characterization of a bi-layered nano-filtration membrane from a chitosan hydrogel and bacterial cellulose nanofiber for dye removal. Cellulose. 2018;25(9):5123-5137.

Kavitha E, Sowmya A, Prabhakar S, Jain P, Surya R, Rajesh MP. Removal and recovery of heavy metals through size enhanced ultrafiltration using chitosan derivatives and optimization with response surface modeling. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;132:278-288.

Ngah WW, Teong LC, Hanafiah MAKM. Adsorption of dyes and heavy metal ions by chitosan composites: A review. Carbohydr Polym 2011;83:1446-1456.

Chen X, Lam KF, Mak SF, Yeung KL. 2011. Precious metal recovery by selective adsorption using biosorbents. J Hazard Mater. 2011;186:902-910.

Arrascue ML, Garcia HM, Horna O, Guibal E. Gold sorption on chitosan derivatives. Hydrometallurgy. 2003;71:191-200.

Liu Z, Wang H, Liu C, Jiang Y, Yu G, Mu X, Wang X. Magnetic cellulose–chitosan hydrogels prepared from ionic liquids as reusable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions. Chem Comm. 2012;48(59):7350-7352.

Yu Z, Zhang X, Huang Y. Magnetic chitosan–iron (III) hydrogel as a fast and reusable adsorbent for chromium (VI) removal. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2013;52(34):11956-11966.

Aziz SB. Morphological and optical characteristics of chitosan (1− x): Cuox (4≤ x≤ 12) based polymer nano-composites: Optical dielectric loss as an alternative method for tauc’s model. Nanomaterials. 2017;7(12):444.

Aziz SB. The mixed contribution of ionic and electronic carriers to conductivity in chitosan based solid electrolytes mediated by CuNt salt. J Inorg Organomet Polym Mater. 2018;28(5):1942-1952.

Aziz SB, Abdullah RM. Crystalline and amorphous phase identification from the tanδ relaxation peaks and impedance plots in polymer blend electrolytes based on [CS: AgNt] x: PEO (x-1)(10≤ x≤ 50). Electrochim Acta. 2018;285:30-46.

Franconetti A, Carnerero JM, Prado-Gotor R, Cabrera-Escribano F, Jaime C. Chitosan as a capping agent: Insights on the stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Carbohyd polym. 2019;207:806-814.

Manikandan A, Sathiyabama M. Green synthesis of copper-chitosan nanoparticles and study of its antibacterial activity. J Nanomed Nanotechnol. 2015;6(1):1.

Bui TH, Lee W, Jeon S, Kim KW, Lee Y. Enhanced Gold (III) Adsorption Using Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Chitosan Beads: Effect of Crosslinking Degree on Adsorption Selectivity, Capacity, and Mechanism. Sep Purif Technol 2020;116989.

Oh DX, Kim S, Lee D, Hwang DS. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion. Acta Biomater. 2015;20:104-112.

Thakur VK, Thakur MK. Recent advances in graft copolymerization and applications of chitosan: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2014;2:2637-2652.

Gohel V, Chaudhary T, Vyas P, Chhatpar HS. Isolation and identification of marine chitinolytic bacteria and their potential in antifungal biocontrol. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004;42:715-720

Suryanto D, Nasution SK. Potential of bacteria isolates from stone crabs to produce fermented coconut oil. Microbiology Indonesia. 2005;10

Pillai CKS, Paul W, Sharma CP. Chitin and chitosan polymers: Chemistry, solubility and fiber formation. Prog Polym Sci. 2009;34:641-678.

Rinaudo M. Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Prog Polym Sci. 2006;31:603-632.

Dali S, Safitri NRD, Fawwaz M. Isolation of Chitosan from Mangrove Crab (Scylla serrata) Waste and Its Application Against Absorption of Triglycerides. As-Syifaa Jurnal Farmasi. 2016;8:20-27.

Kumar MNR. A review of chitin and chitosan applications. Reac Funct Polym. 2000;46:1-27.

Cui J, Yu Z, Lau D. Effect of acetyl group on mechanical properties of chitin/chitosan nanocrystal: a molecular dynamics study. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:61.

Sugita P, Wukirsari T, Sjahriza A, Wahyono D. Kitosan: sumber biomaterial masa depan. IPB Press; 2009.

Synowiecki J, Al-Khateeb NA. Production, properties, and some new applications of chitin and its derivatives. 2003.

Bishop PT, Ashfield LJ, Berzins A, Boardman A, Buche V, Cookson J, Gordon RJ, Salcianun C, Sutton PA. Printed gold for electronic applications. Gold Bull. 2010;43:181-188.

Bariain C, Matías IR, Fdez-Valdivielso C, Elosúa C, Luquin A, Garrido J, Laguna M. Optical fibre sensors based on vapochromic gold complexes for environmental applications. Sensor Actuat B-Chem. 2005;108:535-541.

Barakat T, Rooke JC, Genty E, Cousin R, Siffert S, Su BL. Gold catalysts in environmental remediation and water-gas shift technologies. Energy Environ Sci. 2013;6:371-391.

Syed S. Recovery of gold from secondary sources—A review, Hydrometallurgy. 2012;115:30-51.

Terada K, Kawamura H. Preconcentration of gold (III), palladium (II) and ruthenium (III) with dithiocarbamate-chitin. Anal Sci. 1991;7:71-74.

Shoji R, Miyazaki T, Niinou T, Kato M, Ishii H. Recovery of gold by chicken egg shell membrane-conjugated chitosan beads. J. Mater Cycles Waste Manag. 2004;6:142-146.

Wan Ngah WS, Liang KH. Adsorption of gold (III) ions onto chitosan and N-carboxymethyl chitosan: equilibrium studies. Ind Eng Chem Res. 1999;38:1411-1414.

Dwivedi AD, Permana R, Singh JP, Yoon H, Chae KH, Chang YS, Hwang DS. Tunichrome-inspired gold-enrichment dispersion matrix and its application in water treatment: a proof-of-concept investigation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;9:19815-19824.

Peniche‐Covas C, Alvarez LW, Argüelles‐Monal W. The adsorption of mercuric ions by chitosan. J Appl Polym Sci. 1992;46:1147-1150.

Martínez-Castañon GA, Nino-Martinez N, Martinez-Gutierrez F, Martinez-Mendoza JR, Ruiz F. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles with different sizes. J Nanopart Res. 2008;10:1343-1348.

Purcell TW, Peters JJ. Sources of silver in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem. 1998;17:539-546.

Characteristics of hazardous waste, Title 40. Code of Federal Regulations,Part 261.24, 1996 ed. Characteristics of Hazardous Waste, Title 22. California Code of Regulations, Section 66261.24.1997;662.1.

Pethkar AV, Paknikar KM. Thiosulfate biodegradation–silver biosorption process for the treatment of photofilm processing wastewater. Process Biochem. 2003;38:855-860.

Lasko CL, Hurst MP. An investigation into the use of chitosan for the removal of soluble silver from industrial wastewater. Environ Sci Technol. 1999;33:3622-3626.

Songkroah C, Nakbanpote W, Thiravetyan P. Recovery of silver-thiosulphate complexes, with chitin. Process Biochem. 2004;39:1553-1559.

Wang L, Xing R, Liu S, Yu H, Qin Y, Li K, Feng J, Li R, Li P. Recovery of silver (I) using a thiourea-modified chitosan resin. J Hazard Mater. 2010;180:577-582.

Aziz SB, Abidin ZHZ, Arof AK. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the DC conductivity in chitosan–silver triflate polymer electrolyte. Physica B Condens Matter 2010;405(21):4429-4433.

Aziz SB, Abdullah RM, Kadir MFZ, Ahmed HM. Non suitability of silver ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on chitosan mediated by barium titanate (BaTiO3) for electrochemical device applications. Electrochim Acta. 2019;296:494-507.

Aziz SB, Rasheed MA, Abidin ZH. Optical and electrical characteristics of silver ion conducting nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan. J Electron Mater. 2017;46(10):6119-6130.

Aziz SB, Brza MA, Mohamed PA, Kadir MFZ, Hamsan MH, Abdulwahid RT, Woo HJ. Increase of metallic silver nanoparticles in Chitosan: AgNt based polymer electrolytes incorporated with alumina filler. Results Phys. 2019;13:102326.

Aziz SB, Karim WO, Ghareeb HO. The deficiency of chitosan: AgNO3 polymer electrolyte incorporated with titanium dioxide filler for device fabrication and membrane separation technology. J Mater Res Technol. 2020;9(3):4692-4705

Lasko CL, Hurst MP. An investigation into the use of chitosan for the removal of soluble silver from industrial wastewater. Environ Sci Technol. 1999;33:3622-3626.

Benguella B, Benaissa H. Effects of competing cations on cadmium biosorption by chitin. Colloids Surface A. 2002;201:143-150.

Chen A, Holt-Hindle P. Platinum-based nanostructured materials: synthesis, properties, and applications. Chem Rev. 2010;110:3767-3804.

Zito D, Carlotto A, Loggi A, Sbornicchia P, Maggian D, Progold SA. Optimization of SLM technology main parameters in the production of gold and platinum jewelry, In Santa Fe Symposium on Jewelry Manufacturing Technology. 2014; (pp. 439-470).

Ravindra K, Bencs L, Van Grieken R. Platinum group elements in the environment and their health risk. Sci Tot Environ. 2004;318:1-43.

Aktas S, Morcali MH. Platinum recovery from dilute platinum solutions using activated carbon, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China. 2011;21:2554-2558.

Fu J, Nakamura S, Akiba K. Separation and recovery of gold, platinum and palladium by a trioctylamine liquid membrane. Anal Sci. 1995;11:149-153.

Inoue K, Yamaguchi T, Iwasaki M, Ohto K, Yoshizuka K. Adsorption of some platinum group metals on some complexane types of chemically modified chitosan. Sep Sci Technol. 1995;30:2477-2489.

Mao J, Kim S, Wu XH, Kwak IS, Zhou T, Yun YS. A sustainable cationic chitosan/E. coli fiber biosorbent for Pt (IV) removal and recovery in batch and column systems. Sep Purif Technol. 2015;143:32-39.

Guibal E, Vincent T, Mendoza RN. Synthesis and characterization of a thiourea derivative of chitosan for platinum recovery. J Appl Polym Sci. 2000;75:119-134.

Song MH, Kim S, Reddy DHK, Wei W, Bediako JK, Park S, Yun YS. Development of polyethyleneimine-loaded core-shell chitosan hollow beads and their application for platinum recovery in sequential metal scavenging fill-and-draw process. J Hazard Mater. 2017;324:724-731.

Brooks CS. Metal recovery from industrial waste. CRC Press; 2018.

Ruiz M, Sastre AM, Guibal E. Palladium sorption on glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan. Reac Funct Polym. 2000;45:155-173.

Lin S, Wei W, Wu X, Zhou T, Mao J, Yun YS. Selective recovery of Pd (II) from extremely acidic solution using ion-imprinted chitosan fiber: adsorption performance and mechanisms. J Hazard Mater. 2015;299:10-17.

Bratskaya SY, Ustinov AY, Azarova YA, Pestov AV. Thiocarbamoyl chitosan: Synthesis, characterization and sorption of Au (III), Pt (IV), and Pd (II). Carbohydr Polym. 2011;85:854-861.

Mincke S, Asere TG, Verheye I, Folens K, Bussche FV, Lapeire L, Verbeken K, Van Der Voort P, Tessema DA, Fufa F, Du Laing G, Stevans CV. Functionalized chitosan adsorbents allow recovery of palladium and platinum from acidic aqueous solutions. Green Chem. 2019;21:2295-2306.

Wahyu D, Hindarti D, Permana R. Cadmium Toxicity Towards Marine Diatom Thalassiosira sp. and its Alteration on Chlorophyll-a and Carotenoid Content. World News Nat Sci. 2020;31:48-57.

Rizal A, Permana R, Apriliani IM. The effect of phosphate addition with different concentration on the capability of Nannochloropsis oculata as a bioremediation agent of medium heavy metal (Cd2+). World Sci News. 2020;145:286-297.

Ferdian F, Hindarti D, Permana R. Cadmium effects on growth and photosynthetic pigment content of Chaetoceros gracilis. World Sci News. 2020;145:245-255.

Permana R, Ihsan YN. Metal Detoxification in Nature and Its Translation into Functional Adsorbent Materials. World Sci News. 2020;145:144-155.

Fujiwara K, Ramesh A, Maki T, Hasegawa H, Ueda K. Adsorption of platinum (IV), palladium (II) and gold (III) from aqueous solutions onto l-lysine modified crosslinked chitosan resin. J Hazard Mater. 2007;146:39-50.

Li F, Bao C, Zhang J, Sun Q, Kong W, Han X, Wang Y. Synthesis of chemically modified chitosan with 2, 5‐dimercapto‐1, 3, 4‐thiodiazole and its adsorption abilities for Au (III), Pd (II), and Pt (IV). J Appl Polym Sci. 2009;113:1604-1610.

Ramesh A, Hasegawa H, Sugimoto W, Maki T, Ueda K. Adsorption of gold (III), platinum (IV) and palladium (II) onto glycine modified crosslinked chitosan resin. Biores Technol. 2008;99:3801-3809.

Wang Z, Li P, Fang Y, Yan L, Zhou W, Fan X, Liu H. One-step recovery of noble metal ions from oil/water emulsions by chitin nanofibrous membrane for further recycling utilization. Carbohydr Polym. 2019;223:115064.

Park SI, Kwak IS, Bae MA, Mao J, Won SW, Chung YS, Yun YS. Recovery of gold as a type of porous fiber by using biosorption followed by incineration. Biores Technol. 2012;104:208-214.

Yamashita A, Yoshida K, Oshima T, Baba Y. Synthesis of an aminophenylthiomethyl chitosan derivative and its adsorption of precious metals. J Chem Eng Japan. 2015;48: 897-902.

Zhou L, Liu J, Liu Z. Adsorption of platinum (IV) and palladium (II) from aqueous solution by thiourea-modified chitosan microspheres. J Chem Eng Japan. 2009;172:439-446.

Arrascue ML, Garcia HM, Horna O, Guibal E. Gold sorption on chitosan derivatives. Hydrometallurgy. 2003;71:191-200.

Guibal E, Sweeney NVO, Vincent T, Tobin JM. Sulfur derivatives of chitosan for palladium sorption. Reac Funct Polym. 2002;50:149-163.

Ruiz M, Sastre A, Guibal E. Pd and Pt recovery using chitosan gel beads. I. Influence of the drying process on diffusion properties. Sep Purif Technol. 2002;37:2143-2166.

Kanai Y, Oshima T, Baba Y. Synthesis of highly porous chitosan microspheres anchored with 1, 2-ethylenedisulfide moiety for the recovery of precious metal ions. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2008;47:3114-3120.

Asere TG, Mincke S, Folens K, Bussche FV, Lapeire L, Verbeken K, Van Der Voort P, Tessema DA, Du Laing G, Stevens CV. Dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose cross-linked chitosan for the recovery of palladium and platinum from aqueous solution Reac Funct Polym. 2019;141:145-154.

Chassary P, Vincent T, Marcano JS, Macaskie LE, Guibal E. Palladium and platinum recovery from bicomponent mixtures using chitosan derivatives. Hydrometallurgy. 2005;76:131-147.

Kumirska J, Czerwicka M, Kaczyński Z, Bychowska A, Brzozowski K, Thöming J, Stepnowski P. Application of spectroscopic methods for structural analysis of chitin and chitosan. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:1567-1636.

Einbu A, Vårum KM. Depolymerization and de-N-acetylation of chitin oligomers in hydrochloric acid. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8:309-314.

Dykman L, Khlebtsov N. Gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications: recent advances and perspectives. Chem Soc Rev. 2012;41: 2256-2282.