Application of Activated Carbon Prepared from Nypa Palm Seed Husk in the Adsorption of Azo Dyes from Waste Water and Evaluation of the Adsorption Isotherms

Nyeneime W. Akpanudo

Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria.

Aniekan E. Akpakpan *

Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria.

Edet W. Nsi

Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria.

Nsima A. Akpan

Department of Chemical Sciences, Ritman University, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Inyeneobong A. Umana

Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Nypa palm seed husk is an underutilized raw material found in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. In this research, this material was utilized as a raw material for the production of activated carbon which was used as an absorbent for the treatment of simulated wastewater containing Congo red (CR) and Methyl red (MR) (azo dyes). The effect of adsorbate concentration, absorbent dosage, adsorbent-adsorbate contact time on the adsorption of these dyes were evaluated. The results revealed that the adsorption efficiency of MR increase from 20.45 – 91.27 % and that of the CR increase from 68.50 – 99.83 % when the amount of adsorbent was increased from 0.1 – 0.5 g. When adsorbent-adsorbate contact time was increased from 30 – 150 min, the adsorption efficiency increases from 20.93 – 98.94 % for MR and 58.33 – 94.83 % for CR. Also increase in the adsorbate concentration from 50 – 250 mg/L resulted in the decrease in the adsorption efficiency, from 93.16 – 76.10 % for MR and 87.68 – 73.01 mg/L for CR. Adsorption mechanism of these dyes were determined using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. From the values of the linear regression coefficient R2, it was found that the adsorption of methyl red followed Freundlich isotherm while the adsorption of Congo red followed Langmuir isotherm. Hence, Nypa palm seed husk which is presently discarded as a waste material can be utilized in the preparation of activated carbon and apply in the adsorption of azo dyes from industrial effluents.

Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, azo dyes, adsorption isotherms, nypa palm seed husk


How to Cite

Akpanudo, N. W., Akpakpan, A. E., Nsi, E. W., Akpan, N. A., & Umana, I. A. (2024). Application of Activated Carbon Prepared from Nypa Palm Seed Husk in the Adsorption of Azo Dyes from Waste Water and Evaluation of the Adsorption Isotherms. Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, 7(2), 210–217. Retrieved from https://journaljmsrr.com/index.php/JMSRR/article/view/325

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Iqbal M, Edyvean RG. Biosorption of lead, copper and zinc ions on loofa sponge immobilized biomass of Phanerochaetechrysosporium. 2004;17: 21 7–223

Horsfall MJ, Abia AA. Sorption of Cd (II) and Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions by cassava waste biomass (ManihotsculentaCranz). 2003;37:4913–4923

Brown PA, Gill SA, Allen SJ. Metal removal from wastewater using peat. 2000;16:39 07–3916

Han R, Zhang J, Zou W, Xiao H, Shi J, Liu H. Biosorption of copper (II) and lead (II) aqueous solution by chaff in a fixed bed column. J Hazard Mater. 200;133:262–268

Akpakpan AE, Nsi EW, Owen AE, Ikpe EE., Akpan IM. Equilibrium, Kinetics and Isotherm Studies on the Adsorption of Eosin Red and Malachite Green using Activated Carbon from Huracrepitans Seed Shells. AASCIT Journal of Environt. 2018;3:24-28.

Nsi EW, Akpakpan AE, Ukpong EJ, Akpabio UD. Preparation and characterization of Activated Carbon from Hura crepitas Linn seed shell. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES). 2016;5:38-41

Akpakpan AE. Akpabio UD, Obot IB. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and soda pulping of Nypa fruticans Frond and Petiole. Elixir Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2012;45:7664-7668.

Akpakpan AE, Akpabio UD, Ogunsile BO, Eduok, UM. Influence of cooking variable on the soda and soda-ethanol pulping of Nypa fruitcans petiole. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 2011;5(12): 1202-1208.

Akpakpan AE, Ogunsile BO, Akpabio UD, Eduok UM. Comparative Study on the soda-ethanol and soda-butanol pulping of nypa fruiticans petioles. International Journal of Advance Scientific Research and Technology. 2012;1(2):312-324.

Akpakpan AE. Soda-Isopropanol Pulping: An environmentally friendly pulping for Nypa frutican Petioles. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2023;13(3):23-26,

Syauqiah I, Elma M, Mailani DP, Pratiw N Activated carbon from nypa (Nypa fruticans) leaves applied for the Fe and Mn removal IOP Conference Series. Materials Science and Engineering, Bristol 2020; 980.

Taslim Iriany O, Bani Audina E, Hidayat. Preparation of activated carbon-based catalyst from nipa palm (Nypa fruticans) shell modified with KOH for biodiesel synthesis. 3rd International Conference on Natural Resources and Technology. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021;912

Nwabanne JT. Preparation of activated carbon from Nipa palm nut: Influence of Preparation Conditions. Environmental science, Material Science, Chemistry; 2011.

Okeola OF, Odebunmi EO, Bakare OF. Equilibrium and kinetics studies of adsorption of Congo red by activated carbon. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2014;19:(11):1425-1431.

Nsi EW, Akpakpan AE, Ekwere IO, Udoh DP. Equilibrium and isotherm studies on Adsorption of methylene Blue and Malachite green by Activated Carbon from Irvingia Gabonensis Seed Shells. International Journal of Ecological Science and Environmental Engineering (AASCIT). 2017;45:72-77.

Nsi EW, Akpakpan AE, Ukpong EJ, Akpabio UD. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from hura crepitans linn seed shells. The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES). 2016; 5:(9) 38-41.

Akpanudo, NW, Akpakpan AE. Utilization of Coula eludis nut shells in the preparation of activated carbon. Elixir appl. Chem. 2017;104:45738-45740

Akpakpan AE, Inam EJ, Udo IE. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Soda Lignin and its Ester Derivatives as Adsorbents in the Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+from wastewater. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2023; 14(1):82-96

Nazir R., Khan M., Ur Rehman R., Shujah S., Khan M., Ullah M., Zada A., Mahmood N., Ahmad I. (2020): Adsorption of selected azo dyes from an aqueous solution by activated carbon derived from Monotheca buxifolia waste seeds. Soil & Water Res., 15: 166−172.

Akpakpan AE, Nsi EW, Owen AE, Ikpe EE, Akpan IM. Equilibrium, kinetics and isothem studies on the adsorption of eosin red and malachite green using activated carbon from Hura crepitans Seed Shells. AASCIT Journal of Environment. 2018; 3(4):24-28

Shridhar KJ, Sanjaykumar RT. Adsorption of azo dyes using biochar prepared from regional crop waste material. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2022;19(1): 141-151

Tejada-Tovar C, Villabona-Ortíz A, Gonzalez-Delgado AD. Adsorption of Azo-Anionic dyes in a solution using modified coconut (Cocos nucifera) Mesocarp: Kinetic and Equilibrium Study. Water. 2021;13(10):1382