Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews https://journaljmsrr.com/index.php/JMSRR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas including metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, electrical materials, composite materials, fibers, all engineering materials, nanostructured materials, nanocomposites, and biological and biomedical materials. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews en-US Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews Properties of Materials and their Molecular Bases. New Approaches towards Understanding Liquid Crystals and Polymers https://journaljmsrr.com/index.php/JMSRR/article/view/30171 <p>The fundamental bases of liquid crystals and polymers–both widely employed in, and critically important to, modern society–apparently remain poorly understood. Hence, the need to explore alternative explanations to current paradigms.</p> <p>Thus, liquid crystals are viewed as partially molten solids that retain a semblance of the order of their crystalline precursors. However, this seems unviable as the long-range order in the resulting mesophase cannot survive at temperatures higher than the melting point of the crystal itself.</p> <p>In polymers, the non-covalent intermolecular forces are believed to be additively amplified along the length of the macromolecule. However, this ignores the fact that the said forces remain minuscule at the sub-unit level, so a collection of macromolecules would be continually associating and dissociating at each contact point. It is doubtful that this can explain the observed mechanical strength of polymers (leading to the “polythene enigma”).&nbsp;</p> <p>It is argued herein that liquid crystals arise via the entanglement of long chains and U-shaped moieties in the incipient crystalline melt, a process essentially facilitated by proximity effects in the crystal. Thus, the entanglements are not easily reversed once the proximity effects are lost in the mesophase, which is likely a nanoparticle aggregate possibly composed of quasi-rotaxane and quasi-catenane species. Furthermore, liquid crystals–even those derived from achiral molecules–display optical activity, which is critical to their application in display devices. Although this symmetry breaking remains enigmatic, a chiral mechanochemical effect or even parity violation are possible explanations.</p> <p>In the case of macromolecular association, it is argued that the van der Waals force is inherently strong in enthalpy terms, but is stymied by entropic effects which dominate in the weak forces (generally). However, the entropic effects are possibly “damped” in the macromolecule (although in a subtle manner), so association is much greater than currently estimated. These lead to interesting theoretical insights into enthalpy-entropy relationships in atomic and molecular interactions, a sigmoid relationship possibly being indicated.</p> Sosale Chandrasekhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 31 46 Experimental Determination of the Thermal Conductivity of New Compressed Clay Formulations Stabilized with Gum Arabic, Measurement and Impact on Summer Comfort https://journaljmsrr.com/index.php/JMSRR/article/view/30169 <p>Our work expressed that compressed and stabilized clay with arabic gum is a suitable building material in regards to the mechanical properties. This paper presents an experimental study of the determination of thermal conductivity in a steady state cylindrical geometry configuration&nbsp; approach.&nbsp;</p> <p>The results obtained give a thermal conductivity in the order of 1 W.m<sup>-1</sup>. K<sup>-1</sup>, quite similar to other building materials. On the other hand, because of its inertia, the material dampens the temperature variations between the inside and the outside.</p> Jean Louis Tanguier Abakar Ali Abdallah Dadi Mahamat André Donnot Jean Michel Drouet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 1 14 Optimising Medicinal Plants Values Grown in Nigeria for Prevention, Controlling and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Determinant Factors of Infant Mortality Using Mathematical Modelling Protégé https://journaljmsrr.com/index.php/JMSRR/article/view/30170 <p>Infant mortality is a challenge for third-world countries like Nigeria where there is little next to non-availability of conventional drugs, and if available, it is costly and out of the reach of the common populace. It is a fact that medicinal plant is a gift from Mother Nature, but its uses and efficacy have been overlooked over the century because of the over super-imposed of conventional drugs but its medicinal plants efficacy is still intact. The objectives of this work are to optimise medicinal plants values being grown in Nigeria, West Africa, in the prevention, control and treatment of infectious diseases which is a determinant factors of infant mortality using mathematical model protégés. the research/review scientific point of view. The x-rays features of this paper is to formulate and analyse a mathematical model that extends and complements the ones in the literatures by incorporating medicinal plant class denoted by M(t). Mathematical models are widely used to examine, explain and predict the dynamics of infectious diseases transmission. Models have played important roles in developing public health strategies for control and prevention of infectious diseases. The mathematical model is a system of first-order non-linear ordinary differential equations which are partitioned into five different compartments. Two equilibria states exist, the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium which are locally asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number is less than one and unstable if the basic reproductive number is greater than one. Numerical simulations were performed using hypothetical values for the parameters used in the model. The model shows that an increase in the medicinal plants grown or found in the country leads to low disease prevalence among the susceptible infant population considered in this work. Therefore, our medicinal plants become a very alternative for the prevention, control, and treatment of infectious diseases to reduce or prevent infant mortality among infants, especially in rural areas. Also, this will elevate the knowledge from African trado-medical practice and rejuvenate our ethno-botanical properties and characteristics for future uses.</p> Oludare Temitope. Osuntokun Adeyemi O. Binuyo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 15 30