In this initial investigation, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) biocomposites incorporated with nickel zinc ferrite (NZFO) were prepared via heat blending technique followed by a compression molding technique, the percentages of NZFO were varied from 2.5 to 12.5%. All microwave measurements were carried out by means of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) in the frequency ranges between 8 and 12 GHz. The attenuation measurement software was developed to retrieve data from VNA through a Visual Engineering Environment platform. The simulated and measured results showed that the biocomposites with a higher percentage of NZFO would have higher values of reflection coefficient and lower values of the transmission coefficient. On the contrary, the biocomposites with a lower percentage of NZFO have lower values of reflection coefficient and higher values of the transmission coefficient. In conclusion, the percentage of NZFO has significantly influenced the values of microwaves reflection and transmission coefficients of the OPEFB biocomposites.
An empirical model is developed and tested on cubic solids for the calculation of bandgaps. The dataset for the model is derived from a semi-local approximation in which the local density approximation (LDA) treats the exchange-correlation energy and potential. The agreement between obtained result and experimental data is very good and is of the same order as the more expensive methods.
The inhibitive performance of aqueous Vigna unguiculata coat extract on the corrosion of pipeline steel in 0.5 M HCl solution was studied by electrochemical, Gravimetric and UV-Visible spectroscopy techniques at varying temperatures. The extract was characterized using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer, GC-MS analysis. The results revealed that increase in concentration of extract yielded an increased inhibition efficiency up to 86.7% at 303 K; but showed a reversed trend at elevated temperature. The potentiodynamic polarization data indicate that aqueous Vigna unguiculata is a mixed type inhibitor of steel pipeline corrosion in acidic environment, while the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result showed the extract's activity was on the solution-metal interface. Also, adsorption of aqueous Vigna unguiculata coat molecules on steel pipeline followed Temkin isotherm. The GC-MS results showed presence of heavy hetro-molecules. While, the adsorption of extract film deposited on the steel surface was characterized using FT-IR. The thermodynamic data strongly suggests that the mode of adsorption involved both physisorption and chemisorption.
This study investigates the synthesis and characterization of organophilic bentonite, from natural organophobic bentonite from Ebenebe Anambra State, Nigeria. The clay was used after milling and drying at 110°C overnight. The natural bentonite was then converted to sodium bentonite via ion exchange process using sodium carbonate. The Sodium exchanged bentonite (SEB) was modified through incipient wetness impregnation and ion exchange technique with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DMDOA) to obtain organophilic bentonite. The mineralogical characteristic of the clays was determined before and after modification using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF). Different organic solvents, namely kerosene, diesel, gasoline, xylene, ethyl benzene and toluene, were used to investigate the organophilic nature as well as the adsorption capacity of the modified bentonite. The XRF result showed from the Si/Al ratio that modification did not affect the basic structure of the bentonite. The FTIR result showed bands which are attributable to asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration of CH2 group of the alkyl chains present in DMDOA. Another band was also assigned to the asymmetric angular deformation of the CH3 group of dimethyl ammonium quaternary group. The modified samples showed higher affinity as well as higher sorption capacity to organic solvents compared to SEB and the order of adsorption capacity for these organics are diesel > kerosene > gasoline and toluene > ethylbenzene > xylene. The results show that the organophilic bentonite clay has potential for the removal of organics in produced water.
The study was carried out to identify the types of non-farm activities engaged in by rural women in Kajuru LGA of Kaduna State and the type of activity that substantially improves their income as an indicator of empowerment. Data obtained through questionnaire were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results show that non-farm activities engaged in by the women were mostly informal including services, trade and commerce and arts and crafts. When total mean income of the women were calculated, the income of women who were tailors had the highest percentage (11.75% compared to other non-farm opportunities. The findings of this study, showed that government should institute a well-equipped skills acquisition center with greater emphasis on tailoring (clothing and textiles) towards increasing the participation of women in high non-farm activities like tailoring which usually required acquisition of skills and the income return is high.