Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Different Carboneous Waste for the Formulation of Erasable Ink for White Board Marker Refill

M. John, S. A. Osemeahon, B. J. Dimas

Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, Page 1-6

This article is aimed at carrying out comparative analysis of prepared erasable ink from locally sourced carboneous wastes (lampblack, tyre and coconut shell soot). Different formulation and modification were adapted in this research with effect to three different pigments for the produced inksusing non- oleoresinous varnish preparation method for the assessment and evaluation of the physiochemical properties. Standard test methods for adhesion, viscosity, opacity, drying time, erasability, eligibility were done on the formulated samples as described by SONS 1990.It was found that the size and shape of the pigment particles affects the colorstrength, hue, saturation, viscosity as well as other properties. Increasing gum Arabic increases viscosity which is inversely proportional to the drying time and as seen to give the ink a better performance and stability. This work is hoped to profferalternative sources of pigment in ink formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Potentials of Liberation Size Determination in Anka (Zamfara State, Nigeria) Manganese Ore and its Communition Tendency using Bond Index Technique

Y. E. Gbadamosi, O. O. Alabi, J. O. Borode

Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, Page 7-18

The present level of exploitation of Manganesemineral from its ore is very low due to depletion of its ore; therefore, there is need for appropriate processing technique that will help in providing solution to the exploitation problem encountered. Chemical, Petrological, Mineralogical, Fractional sieve size analysis and work index of the Anka manganese ore in Anka town of Zamfara state, Nigeria was investigated. 500 g of the ore was weighed using digital weighing balance. The sample was crushed and ground to 80 % passing 250μm sieve size. The ground ore was analyzed using the Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (ED-XRFS), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscope equipped with dispersion spectrum analyzer (SEM-EDX) and Leica Petrological Microscope. Fractional sieve analysis of the crude sample was carried out at sieve range of 1000-63µm towards particle size distribution and liberation size determination. 500 grams of manganese ore and quartz were sampled and prepared by crushing and grinding to 100% passing 1200μm sieve. 100 grams of prepared ores were charged into array of sieve arranged in √2 series. Set of sieves were mounted on automated Endecott sieve shaker and was operated for 20 minutes. ED-XRFS results shows 77.81% MnO, 10.9% Fe2O3, 4% Al2O3 while the mineralogical analysis reveals Spessartine (3MnO.Al2O3, 0.830), Silicon oxide (SiO2, 1.122), Quartz (SiO4, 0.728), Pyrolusite (MnO, 1.543), and Almandine (Fe3Al2SiO12, 1.583) were identified as the major phases in the ore and the petrological analysis of the crude samples reveals the presence of heavy mineral and segregation distribution of the mineral. The particle size analysis carried out on the Anka Manganese ore revealed that the manganese bearing mineral can be liberated at the particle size fraction of -180 + 125 μm. The work index of the Anka Manganese ore was found to be 14.16 Kwh/ton using the Gaudin Schumann Expression and it falls within the range indicated in literatures as standard which is 10-15.14 Kwh/ton.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characterization of Soapbark Fibers

Sivasubramanian Palanisamy, Mayandi Kalimuthu, Murugesan Palaniappan, Azeez Alavudeen, Nagarajan Rajini, Carlo Santulli

Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, Page 19-26

The local availability of biowaste, which can be used as possible source of fibers, is an important trigger for research into new lignocellulosic materials for potential introduction into biocomposites: to evaluate this possibility, characterization is needed. In this work, soapbark (Acacia Caesia) fibers are obtained by peeling the bark fibrous structure out of these climbers, which are diffuse in Kerala, a state of southern India, particularly in the Western Ghats. Acacia Caesia bark is widely available and is used for ayurvedic medicine purposes to reduce the skin issues, and therefore in the wider context of cosmetics. The fibers extracted from the bark have not previously been researched for their potential use in materials, though them being lightweight, renewable, cheap, entirely or partially recyclable, and biodegradable. In particular, Acacia Caesia fibers’ properties, once extracted from the bark, have been investigated to determine their appropriate applications in the future, starting from soapbark fiber morphology. The fibers were therefore extracted, and their fibers' chemical composition, density and morphological features, such as diameter, regularity, compactness, presence of porosities, were determined in particular by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In practice, soapbark fibers do appear quite similar to coir, with the added difficulty of cumbersome extraction process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Developing a Step by Step Understanding of Physical and Microstructural Features of HVOF Coatings by Impedance Spectroscopy Modelling

Akbar Niaz, Muhammad Iftikhar Faraz, Abdulaziz Hassan Elsinawi, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman

Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, Page 27-50

The corrosion of HVOF metallic coatings is a complex electrochemical process where numerous physical and electrochemical processes occurred at the surface. Researchers have adopted different approaches to study these processes. A significant cache of research material is available online, where researchers have reported electrochemical corrosion testing techniques complemented with passive layer characterization and microstructure analysis. Some others published their work supported by complicated mathematical modelling concepts and equations. This study focuses on developing a step-by-step understanding of the physical and microstructural features of HVOF coatings by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.  First, the different physical characteristics of the coating are envisaged, and their corresponding equivalent circuit models are constructed. Second, using simulation software, the impedance of each circuit is simulated by giving seed values to each circuit component. Third, after building up the necessary background, a model is constructed for the HVOF Inconel 625 coatings to see the quality of fit with the experimental data. Although the quality of fit is not perfect, still, the step-by-step modeling and simulation of the corrosion processes at the coatings add value to the knowledge in electrochemical corrosion testing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extractive Commodity Price Risks and Effects given the Covid-19 Pandemic

Semboja Haji Hatibu Haji

Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews, Page 51-61

Sudden outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in December 2019 has brought global and domestic disturbances in the commodity market systems and processes. This has mostly affected the demand as well as the supply of the extractive sector commodities. The oil and gas markets have been severely complicated due to outrageous collapse in the demand majorly due to global travel restrictions which has also caused sharp down-swings and slows up-swings in global and national oil prices. The prices of both precious and industrial metals have also been negatively affected, although the price movement has not been more dramatic than that of oil prices. The ultimate short, medium and long term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will greatly depend on global and national systems, technological developments, resources, infrastructure capacities and duration of its outspread, but it is expected to have long-lasting implications.  The paper assesses levels of risks for the prices of extractive products given COVID-19 pandemic using the HakiRasilimali field research survey 2020.

The levels of risks on many commodity market prices in the extractive sector are high. There are various global and domestic factors contributing to current price volatility, mechanisms and effects on socio-economic factors given Covid-19. The global factor dominated by the plummeting of oil and gas prices was a direct consequence of an oversupply of fuel and a declining demand for fuel amidst travel restrictions and economic lockdowns. Lower and increased risk oil prices mean less investments, exploration; drilling and process activities because most of the new oil driving the economic activities are unconventional and have higher costs per barrel than the conventional source of oil. The levels of risks on the price of many mineral commodity prices have been highly affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. The internal firm factors include weak corporate financial strength and poor price-risk management strategies, as well as dynamic technological mining practices and methods at the operation levels.

All socio-economic entities have to support functioning of perfect competitive extractive product and pricing systems during and after the Covid-19 pandemic. All global, regional and nation oil extractive sector organisations, alliances and firms work jointly and cooperatively to ensure stable market supplies and demand given efficient technologies and prices.